Another powerful and important group in the Zionist movement were those who saw actual work in the Land of Israel as an immediate goal of the movement. The supporters of Practical Zionism were mostly “Hovevi Zion” in Russia, Romania, and Galicia. In other words, they were mostly Jews of Eastern Europe who saw this as a practical solution and a way to escape the pogroms and anti-Semitism. Ussishkin, Tschlenow and Otto Warburg, who was the third president of the Zionist Organizayion were among the leaders of this group. They believed that facts should be established in the Land of Israel: another house and another goat, without waiting to obtain a charter from other nations.
Chaim Weizmann and Martin Buber stood at the head of this movement. The meaning of the word synthetic is combined. In other words, the aim of the movement was to combine Political Zionism and Practical Zionism.
Following the rejection of the Uganda Proposal, the disagreements between advocates of Practical Zionism and advocates of Political Zionism increased. The new approach to Zionism favoured combining political action with practical steps in the Land of Israel. They believed in creating facts on the ground, realizing the principles of Practical Zionism: immigration to Israel and settling and working the land. At the same time, diplomatic steps should be continued. They maintained that the two were connected and mutually dependent. The facts created on the ground would increase the chance of political achievements with the international community and the political achievements would facilitate settlement activity.
Revisionist Zionism demanded a “revision” – a re-examination of the Zionist movement’s modes of action and a clearer definition of its aims. The Revisionists’ leader was Ze’ev Jabotinsky, who began to work on the formation of a political party and a youth movement, Beitar. The party would support “Zionist Activism” – the creation of a Jewish majority in the Land of Israel on both banks of the Jordan River, the formation of a Jewish army and an insistence that Britain would not veer from the spirit of the Balfour Declaration. The Revisionists first appeared at the 14th Congress in 1925. They called for the gradual transformation of the Land of Israel to an “independent community under the protection of the existing Jewish majority” and vehemently rejected allowing non-Zionists to join the Jewish Agency. At the time, they had only four delegates, but at the 17th Congress, in 1931, they were already the third largest faction in the World Zionist Organization and they pushed for redefining the “final goal” of Zionism (the establishment of a Jewish state with an independent government). When Jabotinsky learned that his proposal wasn’t even brought to a vote, because of a majority decision, he tore up his Congress representative card and he and his fellow party members demonstratively stormed out of the Congress.
On April 25, 1935 Jabotinsky and his followers left the World Zionist Organization and shortly thereafter they established the “New Zionist Organization”, which existed until 1946. Its center was in London. Jabotinsky independently conducted widespread political activity, yet he was unable to provide an alternative to the World Zionist Organization, which he had left. When he was called to testify before official committees that investigated the situation in the Land of Israel and recommended dividing the land, he did so loyally, and his claims were not very different from the views expressed by other Zionist leaders. He rejected the Partition Plan and suggested a ten-year plan for settling 1.5 million Jews in the Land of Israel. Especially outstanding was his call for “evocation” – the immediate voluntary evacuation of the Jews of Europe because of the fear of the approaching Holocaust. He made many attempts to advance this plan by meeting with European leaders and speaking in front of Jewish audiences, however, nothing came out of his efforts.