>>>The establishment of institutions and urban settlement
The establishment of institutions and urban settlement 2018-02-19T22:12:00+00:00

The nascent state…

The establishment of institutions and urban settlement

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Lots of immigrants are arriving in the Land of Israel and there is a lot to be done: a bank is needed, a health maintenance organization (HMO) is needed, bigger factories are needed and of course, political parties are needed – so there will be a little action.
And so during the Second Aliyah manyl institutions were established including the Anglo-Palestine Bank, The Israel Land Development Company, which together with private capital purchased land in the Land of Israel, the Jewish National Fund which acquired land that would remain the property of the Jewish nation, Kupat Holim (HMO), Tnuva (a dairy) and Hamashabir (a department store). Labor parties were organized, including Hapoel Hatzair (the Young Worker) and Poaleii Zion (the Workers of Zion). As a result of all this activity, the population grew in the old urban centers and in 1909, the first Hebrew city was founded! That’s right! Tel Aviv

Education

And of course, the Yishuv grew and children were born. Where would they learn? What would be the language of the schools? Yiddish? Ladino? Perhaps German.
And so in those days, new educational institutions were established, from kindergartens to teachers’ colleges, the David Yellin School for Teachers, the Hovevi Zion Hebrew School for Girls in Jaffa (1909) and the Reali School in Haifa. Some of these new institutions received assistance from Alliance Israélite Universelle and from the Ezra (Help) Organization. And the “language war” started in the Land of Israel – what would be the language of the schools?

The War of Languages

“The Ezra (Help) Organization”, which established the Technion in the Land of Israel and worked for other educational institutions in the land of Israel, decided that German would be the language of instruction at the Technion. This decision by the Board of Trustees caused the Zionist members of “Ezra” to resign and aroused great opposition to the organization in the Land of Israel. The conflict ended with the victory of those who supported Hebrew.

At an “Ezra” meeting, which was held on February 22, 1914, it was announced that the language of instruction at the Technicom would be Hebrew. The Yishuv had freed itself of dependence on other cultures and the influence of foreign languages, greatly strengthening Jewish nationalism. In 1923, the British Mandate government declared the Hebrew language as an official language in the Land of Israel, along with English and Arabic. In the struggle for the Hebrew language, the “Hebrew Organization” was founded. Its founders believed that it was only natural for Hebrew to be the language of the Land of Israel and it was necessary to revive the language.

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גן השקמים
מילים: יצחק יצחקי | לחן: יוחנן זראי
ביצוע: אריק סיני

הַיּוֹם הַשִּׁקְמִים נֶעֶלְמוּ וְאֵינָם –
רַק שֶׁלֶט אֶת שְׁמָם עוֹד מַזְכִּיר,
כַּמָּה צִפּוֹרִים וְסַפְסָל מְיֻתָּם
הַנִּצָּב בְּלִבָּה שֶׁל הָעִיר.

וּמוֹשֵׁךְ הוּא אֵלָיו, כְּשֶׁהָעֶרֶב יוֹרֵד
וְנוֹשְׁרִים מִן הָעֵץ הֶעָלִים,
קַבְּצָן מִן הָרְחוֹב אוֹ הֵלֶךְ בּוֹדֵד
אוֹ זוּג צְעִירִים אוֹהֲבִים

Ahuzat Bayit was established!

The spacious Jewish neighborhood, named Ahuzat Bayit was founded north of Jaffa and adjacent to the Shabazi and Neve Zedek neighborhoods. Its residents were people who had left the crowded living conditions of Jaffa for more comfortable living conditions and for a kind of nationalistic, Zionistic cultural autonomy within the new neighbourhood. They got started in 1906 and the construction of the first houses in Ahuzat Bayit began in 1909. The stately building of the “Herzliya Gymnasium” was relocated to the center of the neighbourhood, making the neighbourhood the new center of Hebrew education. The neighborhood’s proximity to Jaffa and its quality of life led to its growth. On the eve of World War I, 2000 people lived in Tel Aviv.


Settlements of the Second Aliyah

Bayit Gan (1904)
Be’er Ya’akov (1904)
Sharona (1904)
Ein Ganim (1908)
Kinneret (kibbutz) (1908)
Kinneret (moshava) (1908)
Mizpe (1908)
Ahuzat Bayit (Tel Aviv) (1909)
Degania (1909)
Migdal (1910)
Ben Shemen (1911)
Merhavia (1911)
Nahalat Yehuda (1912)
Kfar Malal (1912)

Kfar Uriah (1912)
Nachliel (1912)
Ruchama (1912)
Poriah (1912)
Bitania (1913)
Karkur (1913)
Sha’araim (1913)
Mahane Yehuda (1913)
Kfar Hitim (1914)
Ayelet Hashahar (1918)

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