>>>In the City and in the Village
In the City and in the Village 2018-02-19T22:11:57+00:00

In the City and in the Village

Life in the City

Most of the immigrants of the Fourth Aliyah wanted to continue their urban life and went to the big cities, especially Tel Aviv, where many immigrants were absorbed. The city expanded, new streets were built and construction flourished, employing thousands of workers. Many of the immigrants opened workshops, restaurants and kiosks. The immigrants doubled the population of Tel Aviv, changing it from a town to a city.
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The population of Haifa also grew with the arrival of the people of the Fourth Aliyah. New neighborhoods were built and the construction of the biggest industrial area of the Land of Israel was begun in the Haifa Bay area. New towns were also built, including Herzliya, Ra’anana, Magdiel, Ramataim, Bnei Brak and Afula. In addition to the growth in the neighborhoods that had been established during the Third Aliyah, many new neighborhoods were established in Jerusalem on land bought from the Greek Church. Moreover, the Zionist Federation built independent factories on land that they had purchased and industry began to develop. Nesher and Shemen were pioneers in the Hebrew industry of the Land of Israel.

Life in the Village

A small number of people of the Fourth Aliyah chose private settlement, meaning they chose to buy land from their own money, without any connection to the national institutions. They brought about the growth of many moshavs, mainly in the center of the country. They planted orchards and groves, developing this branch of farming.

Life in the Kibbutz

The first kibbutz, kvotza, Degania, was established during the Second Aliyah. There were fewer than a hundred people living like an extended family, sharing all property. During the Third Aliyah, the big kibbutz was established, based on the belief that a kibbutz should be big, having hundreds of members. The big kibbutz was more diverse. In addition to agriculture, there were workshops, industry and services.

During the Fourth Aliyah, the kibbutz developed and embodied the purest realization of Zionist socialism. The kibbutz contributed to the acquisition of lands and the expansion of Hebrew areas of settlement. It served security ends as it was an organized part of the Hebrew defense network, the Haganah. It absorbed new immigrants, it contributed to the foundation of all the branches of the economy and embodied the value of Hebrew labor.

The Blue Box

Charles Netter established the first agricultural school in the Land of Israel on February 15, 1870. It was established east of Jaffa and south of the Jaffa-Jerusalem road. It was established by the French organization, the Alliance israélite universelle. The Yishuv was very happy to have an agricultural school.

Tel Aviv celebrates.

Watch the movie of Tel Aviv’s Purim Parade in 1932.

Principles of the Kibbutz

  • Kibbutz land is national land, land that was purchased by the Keren Kayemet (the Jewish National Fund) and given to the settlements.
  • Every job is morally and socially equal. No work is more respectable or less respectable. Every person should be respected according to his work, no matter what the work is.
  • All people have equal rights and equal responsibilities. Every individual has the right to develop in keeping with his/her ability and the right to get what he/she needs. Every person must contribute to the kibbutz as much as he/she can.
  • Cooperation is the road to realizing equality. All assets belong to all. There is one fund from which all members receive their budget according to the size and needs of the family.

Building a house on Sheinkin St, in Tel Aviv, 1922

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